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9WaiversContinuedfromPage6AstheNinthCircuitputitafairtrialcannotbehadifthejurymustweighwithalltheotherevi-denceproandcontheoneoverwhelmingpieceofevidencethedefendantpleadedguilty.3FederalRuleofEvidence410andFederalRuleofCriminalProcedure11fRule410goesfurtherthanKerchevelandprovidesthatwithdrawnguiltypleasandstatementsmadeinpleanegotiationsarenotadmissibleagainstade-fendantexceptinaperjuryprosecutionorwherethedefendantoffersevidenceofthestatementsherself.4Rule11governsguiltypleasandprovidesthattheadmissibilityofwithdrawnguiltypleasisgovernedbyRule410.5Thuswithdrawnguiltypleasandstatementsbydefendantsortheirattorneysmadeinthepleanegotiationprocesswhetherornottheyleadtoguiltypleasarepresumptivelyinadmissibleagainstadefendantattrial.MezzanatoTheCourtWeighsInInUnitedStatesv.Mezzanoto6theCourtheldthatasuspectdefendantcanwaivetheprotectionsofRule410.7AfterhisarrestMezzanatoattemptedtoco-operatewiththegovernmentsinvestigationbymeetingwiththeprosecutor.InexchangefortheopportunitytocooperatetheprosecutordemandedthatMezzanatoagreethathisstatementscouldbeusedtoimpeachhimifheproceededtotrial.Mez-zanatoagreedanddiscussedthecrimewiththepros-ecutor.Thepartiesdidnotreachapleaagreement.Mezzanatotestifiedattrialwasimpeachedwithhispriorstatementsandconvicted.TheNinthCircuitreversedtheconvictionreasoningthatAdvisoryNotestoRule410reflectedCongres-sionalintentthattheprotectionsofEvidenceRule410cannotbewaived.8Rule410and11fweredesignedtopromotepleaagreementsbyencourag-ingfrankdiscussioninnegotiations....9Permit-tingwaiverwouldunderminethepleaprocess.10Furthertheserulesweredesignedtoprotectsus-pectsdefendantssothegovernmentshouldnotbepermittedtoextractwaivers.11TheNinthCircuitcitedcasesfromtheSecondandEighthCircuitsandWrightMillersFederalPracticeandProce-dure.12TheSupremeCourtdisagreedandheldthatthepro-tectionsofRules410and11fweresubjecttowaiverjustlikemosttrialrights.TheCourtfoundthatratherthanunderminingafairproceduretheadmissionofpleastatementsforimpeachmentpur-posesenhancesthetruth-seekingfunctionoftrialsandwillresultinmoreaccurateverdicts.13TheCourtalsoreachedthesuspectconclusionthatper-mittingwaiveractuallyencouragessettlementbe-causewithoutthewaiverprosecutorsmightbeun-willingtomeetwithsuspectsdefendantsinthecooperationcontext.14Finallythemerepoten-tialforabuseofprosecutorialbargainingpowerisaninsufficientbasisforforeclosingnegotiationalto-gether.15Threeconcurringjusticesnotedthatallowingsuchevidenceinthegovernmentscase-in-chiefratherthanlimitingittoimpeachmentevidencecouldac-tuallyundermineasuspectdefendantsincentivetonegotiateandinhibitpleabargaining.Theconcur-ringjusticesalsonotedthatthisissuewasnotpre-sentedbecausethegovernmentonlyofferedMezza-natosstatementsforimpeachmentpurposes.Tobeclearimpeachmentwaiversaredifferentthancase-in-chiefwaiversbecausetheyhelpprotectthejuryfromperjuredtestimonyandtherebyprotectjudicialintegrity.Case-in-chiefwaiversdonotsimilarlyprotectjudicialintegrityfromperjuredtestimonybecausetheevidenceisnotofferedinresponsetoallegedlyperjuredtestimony.StillmostappellatecourtshavenotlimitedMezzanatotoimpeachmentevidence.16Becausecourtsinterpretimpeachmentwaiversverybroadlyandadmitalotofevidencethatisnotstrictlyimpeachmentitsnotclearhowmuchdifferencetheissuemakes.17AsstatedaboveissuesconcerningRule410waiv-ersariseinatleastthreeseparatecontexts.BecausewaiversintheCooperationContextwereexplicit-lyendorsedbytheMezzanatoCourttheirenforcea-ContinuedonPage12