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6FBAOCUPCOMINGEVENTSPleasecheckwww.fbaoc.cominthecomingmonthsforde-tails.Rule410and11fWaiversHaveNoPlaceinCriminalPleaAgreementsByKennethM.Miller1FederalRuleofEvidence410Rule410andFederalRuleofCriminalProcedure11fRule11makepleanegotiationsandwith-drawnguiltypleasinadmissibleagainstasus-pectdefendantattrial.Theserulesexisttoen-couragefrankdiscussionsbetweenprosecu-torssuspectsdefendantsanddefensecounsel.NonethelessinUnitedStatesv.MezzanatotheSupremeCourtheldthattheseprotectionscanbewaived.MezzanatoaddressedpleaagreementsintheCooperationCon-textwhichiswherethesuspectdefendantpleadsguiltybutoffersevidenceagainstothersinanattempttoeliminateorlowerhisorherpunishment.TherearetwoothercontextshoweverinwhichRule410waiverscanarise1TheUnconsummated-PleaCon-textwhichiswherethedefendantsignsapleaagreementbutnev-eractuallypleadsguilty2TheWithdrawn-PleaContextwhichiswherethedefendantsignsapleaagreementpleadingguiltybutlaterwithdrawstheguiltypleaoptinginsteadtogototrial.Asdis-cussedinmoredetailbelowcourtshavevaryingopinionsonwhenandifpleascanbeenteredintoevidenceorusedforimpeachmentinthesecontexts.IntheUnconsummated-PleaandWithdrawn-PleacontextswaiversofRules410and11fhavenoplaceinpleaagreements.FederalcourtsshouldfindthatsuchwaiversarenotenforceableintheUnconsummated-PleaContextbecausethevoluntarinessofthepleaagreementhasnotbeensubjecttotherigorsofachange-of-pleahearingunderRule11.AdditionallywhileawithdrawnpleahasbeenthesubjectofaRule11hearingwhenadefendantisper-mittedtowithdrawaguiltypleaitisbecauseheorshehasarighttotrial.Thatrightischeapenedwhenthegovernmentcanuseawithdrawnpleaagreementtoobtainaconviction.BackgroundIn1927theSupremeCourtinUnitedStatesv.Kerchevelheldthatwithdrawnguiltypleaswereinadmissibleinfederalprosecutionsbecauseadmittingthemwouldessentiallynullifytherighttotrial.2ContinuedonPage9