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12WaiversContinuedfromPage9bilityisnotsubjecttoproductivedebate.Howev-erwaiversintheUnconsummated-PleaContextandtheWithdrawn-PleaContexthavenotbeenexpresslyendorsedbycourtsandtherearegoodreasonsnottoenforcethem.18UnconsummatedPleaAgreementsProsecutorsoftenwriteintopleaagreementsthatuponsigningdefendantswaivetheprotectionsofRule410andRule11f.Butnotalldefendantsthatsignpleaagreementsenduppleadingguilty.Thissitua-tionfacedtheEighthCircuitinUnitedStatesv.Wash-burn.19TherethedefendantsignedapleaagreementthatwaivedRule410protectionsbutneverenteredaguiltypleaandinsteadproceededtotrial.Thewrittenfactualba-sisinthepleaagreementwasofferedagainsthimattrialandhewasconvicted.TheEighthCircuitaffirmed.Be-causetherewasnoevidencetheagreementwasenteredunknowinglyorinvol-untarilythepleaagreementwasacontractthatwaseffectivewhensigned.Adialoguebe-tweenthedistrictcourtandthedefendantregard-ingtheknowingandvoluntarynatureofapleaagreementthatusuallyoccursatachangeofpleahearingisnotaprerequisiteforavalidwaiverofaparticularright.20ButRule11hearingsaresolemnproceedingsde-signedtoensurethatguiltypleasareknowingvoluntaryandhaveasufficientfactualbasis.21Itisbecauseofthesolemnnatureoftheadmissionsinachange-of-pleahearingthataguiltypleawaivesclaimsforallconstitutionalclaimsthatarosebe-foretheguiltyplea.22MoreoveritwasimportanttotheMezzanatoCourtthatpermittingRule410waiversintheCooperationContextfurtheredaccuratefactfinding.23Thatmakessensewhenyouareim-peachingadefendantwithherownwords.Butpleaagreementsandtheirfactualbasesarewrit-tenbyprosecutors.Asforthedefendantnumer-ousfactorsbeyondtruthmaygointothedecisiontopleadguiltye.g.fearofevengreaterpunish-mentthefinancialandemotionalcostoftrialloy-altytoorfearofothersetc.ARule11pleacollo-quyisdesignedtoensurethepleaanditsfactualbasisisbasedonthetruthandnotsomethingelse.AnyfederalpleathatdoesnotsurvivethescrutinyofaRule11pleacolloquyissuspect.Adefendantshouldnotbeboundbytheprovisionsofapleaagree-mentuntilafteradistrictcourthasfoundthatitisknowingvoluntaryandbasedonanadequatefounda-tion.Andthiscanonlybedoneafterhearingthede-fendantssolemntestimonyinopencourtataRule11hearing.24Finallyallowingsuchwaiv-ersunnecessarilyencouragesconflictsbetweendefendantsandtheircounsel.MezzanatomakesclearthatRule410waiversarenotenforce-ableunlesstheyareknowingandvoluntary.Whereapleaagreementissignedbutthedefend-antbacksoutofthedealthereareoftenonlytwowitnessestowhethertheRule410waiverwasknowinglyandvoluntarythedefendantandhisorherlawyer.Ifthedefendantclaimsthewaiverwasnotknowingandvoluntarytherewillalmostcertainlybeaconflictbetweenthedefendantandthelawyerwhosignedtheagreementandattestedthatitwasknowingandvoluntary.Therulesofevidenceandcriminalprocedureshouldnotbeinterpretedtoencouragesuchconflicts.WithdrawnGuiltyPleasEnforcingRule410waiversforactualguiltypleasthatthedistrictcourtpermitstobewithdrawnrais-esdifferentissues.InthesecasesthewaiverisContinuedonPage17Thewaiverthatpermitsadmissionofthewithdrawnpleasfactualbasischeapensthegrantoftherighttotrialbecausethegovernmentcanusethesupposedlywithdrawnadmissionstoproveitscase.